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Henry Kissinger, Eric Schmidt & Daniel Huttenlocher

And Our Human Future

3.8 (202 ratings)
17 mins
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    The Age of AI
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    From Turing to today

    AI has progressed rapidly from theoretical concepts to advanced technologies, like machine learning, that continue shattering our expectations. 

    It was twentieth-century scientist and philosopher Alan Turing who proposed a pioneering evaluation to ascertain whether machines could exhibit human-level intelligence. His idea was to give machines creative challenges rather than mathematical tests. Turing described an experiment in which a human evaluator would hold written conversations with a computer and another human, without knowing which was which. The evaluator would then judge the machine’s ability to demonstrate human-like responses, reasoning, and emotional intelligence through its natural language capabilities. 

    This approach placed emphasis on testing a machine’s capacity for tasks like language fluidity, problem-solving, and adapting to new information. Mathematical prowess alone wasn’t enough. Turing’s criteria for intelligence – known as the Turing test – remains influential today, shaping key benchmarks of AI progress beyond speed and accuracy metrics.

    Researchers found rule-based code alone couldn’t replicate human cognition. So techniques using neural networks – that is, networks of nodes used for machine learning – were developed in order to enable AI to learn ambiguous, imperfect information just as we do. If you feed an AI enough examples of molecular structures and antibiotic effectiveness, it will predict potent new medicines unforeseen by science. Feed it classic novels and news articles, and it will spit out original, often eerie, stories. 

    In addition to commanding programs to do exactly as they are told, code has been developed to learn based on training data.

    In the field of biology, the protein-folding prediction system AlphaFold demonstrates this well. It achieved accuracy ratings far above existing science by training on DNA data, allowing biologists to validate theories at unbelievable scale. 

    To do this, scientists utilized huge databases such as the Protein Data Bank, which contains over 170,000 experimentally-determined 3D protein structures. They also used datasets like UniProt, which include millions of protein sequences without known 3D structures. With the combined information from these training sets, AlphaFold learned what properly folded proteins should look like and generalized what proteins hadn’t already been solved. After a lot of refining, this training produced unprecedented results to predict protein folding, and opened possibilities to better understand disease and drug interaction. 

    As many advantages as there are, AI has its limitations, and these are often revealed through bias and unpredictable mistakes.

    Flaws in training data or human oversight can severely skew system outputs, like how Microsoft’s chatbot Tay began spewing racist, sexist language after public interaction. And lack of context when processing information causes AI bloopers no person would make. 

    Large language models such as ChatGPT work by training the AI system on massive text datasets, allowing it to learn nuance patterns about how language and writing work. The systems predict the most likely next word in a sentence, and build fluent, human-like text. Large models optimize to continue text sequences fluently, not for accuracy or truth. So without oversight, they can confidently generate believable yet completely invented or unethical text, like what we saw in Tay. 

    It’s therefore crucial that we instill accountability so AI reliably aligns with ethics and social benefit. Countries implement professional certification, standards, and compliance monitoring because the technology’s growth will not slow on its own. But exciting possibilities lie ahead if guided properly with potentially AI lawyers, assistants, even artists, producing astonishing creative works reflecting the diverse beauty of human cultures.

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    What is The Age of AI about?

    The Age of AI (2021) examines the evolution of artificial intelligence, how it’s increasingly integrated into all facets of life, and profound questions surrounding AI’s relationship to ethics, security, economics, and the human experience itself.

    The Age of AI Review

    The Age of AI (2021) explores the impact of artificial intelligence on society, governance, and international relations. Here's why this book is worth reading:

    • It offers insights from renowned experts Henry Kissinger, Eric Schmidt, and Daniel Huttenlocher, providing a comprehensive understanding of the AI revolution.
    • Through a combination of in-depth analysis and practical examples, the book highlights the ethical and policy challenges posed by AI, encouraging critical thinking on the topic.
    • With its fascinating exploration of AI's potential in fields like healthcare and warfare, the book keeps readers engaged, ensuring the topic is anything but boring.

    Who should read The Age of AI?

    • Technology enthusiasts and professionals
    • Business leaders and entrepreneurs
    • Policymakers and ethicists

    About the Author

    Henry Kissinger (1923–2023) was a United States secretary of state and national security advisor. In 1973, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the Vietnam War ceasefire and troop withdrawal. He authored numerous books on diplomacy and international relations including his best-selling memoir White House Years and the historical analysis World Order.

    Eric Schmidt served as Google’s CEO from 2001 to 2011. As an executive chairman, he helped launch Google’s move into AI. He co-wrote the New York Times best seller How Google Works. Schmidt is the founder of technology and security private foundation Special Competitive Studies Project.

    Daniel Huttenlocher is a specialist in computer science and AI. He helped establish Cornell Tech, serving as its first dean and vice provost, overseeing expansions in artificial intelligence research and education. Huttenlocher is chief technology officer leading AI product development at Amazon Web Services.

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    The Age of AI FAQs 

    What is the main message of The Age of AI?

    The main message of The Age of AI is the potential of artificial intelligence to shape our future and the need for both caution and collaboration in its development.

    How long does it take to read The Age of AI?

    The estimated reading time for The Age of AI is several hours. The Blinkist summary can be read in just a few minutes.

    Is The Age of AI a good book? Is it worth reading?

    The Age of AI is worth reading for its insightful exploration of the impact of artificial intelligence on society and the thought-provoking questions it raises.

    Who is the author of The Age of AI?

    The authors of The Age of AI are Henry Kissinger, Eric Schmidt, and Daniel Huttenlocher.