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Four Hundred Souls summary

Ibram X. Kendi and Keisha N. Blain

A COMMUNITY HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICA, 1619–2019

4.3 (69 ratings)
35 mins

Brief summary

'Four Hundred Souls' edited by Ibram X. Kendi and Keisha N. Blain is a collection of essays that chronicles the Black experience in America from 1619 to 2019, highlighting both the pain and the resilience of Black people throughout history.

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    Four Hundred Souls
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    Key idea 1 of 10

    The story of America is deeply entangled with the practice of slavery.

    In popular mythology, the story of America began in November of 1620, when the English colonial ship, Mayflower arrived on the shores of Massachusetts. The story goes on to herald its Pilgrim passengers as some of America’s first non-native residents.

    Yet, just a year earlier, another English ship docked farther south along the coast, in Virginia. The arrival of this ship, White Lion, also deeply shaped the course of America’s history. Like the Mayflower, this ship had an English crew. But inside, it transported about two dozen captives from Angola.

    These enslaved people were sold as property to Virginia’s English colonists. Unlike the Pilgrims, we don’t know their names or individual stories, but their arrival in the “New World” is equally significant in American history.

    This is the key message: The story of America is deeply entangled with the practice of slavery.

    The tales around these two arrivals, the Mayflower and the White Lion, highlight a foundational rupture in the American story. The Mayflower’s story is framed as human triumph. The Pilgrims crossed the ocean seeking a better life, and built a new society to achieve their vision. By contrast, the captive Angolans on the White Lion arrived as property, already stripped of their humanity. They were transported against their will and denied their own pursuit of happiness.

    Africans lived in the New World prior to 1619, too. Spanish and Portuguese slave traders brought many to the Caribbean as early as the 1520s. As colonization continued, the practice of capturing people in Africa and selling them to work as slaves in the Americas only grew. To feed this inhumane industry, Europeans plundered the agricultural expertise and technical skills of many West African communities, including the Mandinka, Peul, Wolof, and Hausa. Over time, this transatlantic slave trade became the largest movement of people in world history.

    It’s difficult to understate the depravity of slavery as an institution. Enslaved Africans were denied the basic human rights of autonomy and self-determination. To justify such conditions, Europeans constructed an elaborate ideology in which Blackness was always inferior to Whiteness. Over time, laws both official and unspoken came to enforce this racial divide. 

    Of course, the settling of America was only possible thanks to Black labor and expertise. By 1649, more than 300 Black people lived in the British colony of Virginia. The colonists relied on these people for their agricultural knowledge and domestic skills. By 1662, a Virginia law declared that all people born to enslaved mothers would also be enslaved. Slavery was thus woven even deeper into the fabric of American society – as we will explore more in the next blink.

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    What is Four Hundred Souls about?

    Four Hundred Souls (2021) is an innovative and insightful recounting of African American history. This collection brings together ninety different authors to reflect on four-hundred years of struggle, oppression, and hope.

    Four Hundred Souls Review

    Four Hundred Souls (2021) is a collaborative masterpiece that chronicles the 400-year journey of Black people in America. Here's why this book is worth reading:

    • With contributions from 90 authors, including scholars, activists, and writers, the book offers a diverse and comprehensive exploration of Black history.
    • Unearthing untold stories and shedding light on overlooked voices, it brings a fresh perspective to our understanding of the African American experience.
    • Through its powerful narratives and thought-provoking essays, it fosters a deeper appreciation for the resilience and triumphs of Black individuals and communities throughout history.

    Best quote from Four Hundred Souls

    The system of racialized slavery that is now seared into the American public consciousness took centuries to metastasize and mature.

    —Ibram X. Kendi and Keisha N. Blain
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    Who should read Four Hundred Souls?

    • Americans curious to explore their country’s layered history
    • Politically engaged thinkers wishing to understand the roots of current issues
    • Anyone who wants more insight into the Black experience

    About the Author

    Ibram X. Kendi is the Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities at Boston University, and the founding director of the BU Center for Antiracist Research. He is the best-selling author of How to Be an Antiracist, Stamped, and Antiracist Baby. 

    Keisha N. Blain is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Pittsburgh and president of the African American Intellectual History Society. Her work includes the Washington Post’s “Made in History” section and the book Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom.

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    Four Hundred Souls FAQs 

    What is the main message of Four Hundred Souls?

    Four Hundred Souls explores the 400-year African American history through 90 authors' essays, offering a comprehensive narrative.

    How long does it take to read Four Hundred Souls?

    The reading time for Four Hundred Souls varies, but it typically takes several hours. The Blinkist summary can be read in around 15 minutes.

    Is Four Hundred Souls a good book? Is it worth reading?

    Four Hundred Souls is an important book that sheds light on significant moments in African American history. It's a valuable read for anyone interested in understanding the collective experience of Black Americans.

    Who is the author of Four Hundred Souls?

    Four Hundred Souls is a collaborative effort edited by Ibram X. Kendi and Keisha N. Blain.

    What to read after Four Hundred Souls?

    If you're wondering what to read next after Four Hundred Souls, here are some recommendations we suggest:
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    • Design Your Future by Dominick Quartuccio
    • Escape from Freedom by Erich Fromm
    • How to Be an Antiracist by Ibram X. Kendi
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