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Zusammenfassung von Rationality

Steven Pinker

What It Is, Why It's Scarce, and How to Get More

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24 Min.

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'Rationality' by Steven Pinker explores the principles of rational thinking and how to apply them in everyday life. It provides valuable insights into how to think critically, make sound decisions, and avoid common cognitive biases.


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    Rationality is a means to an end.

    Let’s start at the beginning: what is rationality? Dictionaries tell us that rational means “having reason.” And reason comes from the Latin word ratio, which means – you guessed it – “reason.”

    So, if etymology leads us in circles, could philosophy help? Philosophers state that rationality is the ability to use knowledge to attain goals. Better?

    Let’s break that down. The term knowledge refers to justified true beliefs. We wouldn’t credit someone with being rational if they knowingly acted on false beliefs – like looking for a misplaced wallet someplace they knew it couldn’t be. But there’s more to rationality than simply thinking true thoughts like “1 + 1 = 2.” It also helps us do things.

    The key message here is: Rationality is a means to an end.

    In 1890, the American philosopher William James wrote an essay on the difference between rational beings and nonrational entities.

    James observed that if you scatter iron filings on a table and place a magnet near them, they fly toward the magnet and stick to its surface. But cover the magnet with a card and they press against its surface – it never occurs to them to bypass the card and come into direct contact with the object that attracts them. Now consider Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.

    Juliet is Romeo’s “magnet.” When there’s no obstacle in his path, he moves toward her in a straight line just as the filings moved toward the real magnet. But here’s the difference. When Romeo finds his path blocked, he alters course. Romeo and Juliet don’t remain on either side of this obstacle, “idiotically pressing their faces against its opposite sides like the magnet and the filings with the card.”

    In the play, Romeo and Juliet use their knowledge of the world to overcome hurdles. Romeo scales walls to touch Juliet’s lips, and the couple scheme to deceive their hostile families.

    For James, this is what sets nonrational entities and rational beings apart. Iron filings move in a straight line toward their goal. But their path to that goal is fixed – that’s why the card impedes them so easily. It’s the other way round for rational beings. Romeo and Juliet’s desired end – being together – is fixed, but they’re highly flexible about how they achieve that goal.

    This is human rationality in action: when one path is blocked, we can always try another.

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    Worum geht es in Rationality?

    Rationality (2021) explores the faculty that sets us apart from other species: reason. The ability to think rationally drives individual and social progress. It allows us to attain our goals and create a fairer world. But rationality isn’t just something we do as individuals – it also sustains our best institutions.

    Bewertung von Rationality

    Rationality (2021) by Steven Pinker is a thought-provoking exploration of rational thinking and decision-making. Here's why this book is definitely worth reading:

    • With its comprehensive analysis of human cognition and biases, it offers valuable insights into improving our decision-making processes.
    • The book presents convincing arguments backed by research, helping readers understand the importance of rationality in various aspects of life.
    • Through engaging anecdotes and real-life examples, it brings the subject to life, making it an enjoyable and eye-opening reading experience.

    Wer Rationality lesen sollte

    • Would-be rationalists
    • Philosophical thinkers
    • Anyone who loves big ideas

    Über den Autor

    Steven Pinker is the Johnstone Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and an award-winning author. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, he’s been named one of Time’s 100 Most Influential People and one of Foreign Policy’s 100 Leading Global Thinkers. His previous books include Enlightenment Now and The Better Angels of Our Nature

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    Rationality FAQs 

    What is the main message of Rationality?

    The main message of Rationality is the importance of thinking logically and making informed decisions.

    How long does it take to read Rationality?

    The reading time for Rationality varies depending on the reader's speed. However, the Blinkist summary can be read in just 15 minutes.

    Is Rationality a good book? Is it worth reading?

    Rationality is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in improving their thinking skills. It provides valuable insights and practical techniques.

    Who is the author of Rationality?

    The author of Rationality is Steven Pinker.

    What to read after Rationality?

    If you're wondering what to read next after Rationality, here are some recommendations we suggest:
    • Enlightenment Now by Steven Pinker
    • The Blank Slate by Steven Pinker
    • The Stuff of Thought by Steven Pinker
    • The Better Angels of Our Nature by Steven Pinker
    • Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
    • Super Human by Dave Asprey
    • Decisions about Decisions by Cass R. Sunstein
    • Stolen Focus by Johann Hari
    • Collective Illusions by Todd Rose
    • Lives of the Stoics by Ryan Holiday and Stephen Hanselman